4. Fatty Acid Profiling - EFRAC | Drug, Food, Gas, Proficiency Testing Laboratory
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    FATTY ACID PROFILING

    Fatty Acids are categorized into Monounsaturated (MUFA), Polyunsaturated (PUFA), Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA), or Trans Fatty Acids (TFA).

    While Palmitoleic, Oleic, Gadoleic, Erucic, and Nervonic Acids comprise the 05 MUFAs, Linoleic, Linolenic, and Arachidonic Acids are the 03 PUFAs. The 06 SFAs are the Lauric, Myristic, Palmitic, Stearic, Behenic, and Lignoceric Fatty Acids. Of the 05 MUFAs, Linoleic Acid (LA), (popularly called Omega-6 Fatty Acid) & Linolenic Acid (also called Omega-3 Fatty Acid) are termed “Essential Fatty Acids” (EFAs).

    The Human Body cannot synthesize PUFA so these have to be obtained from Dietary Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins. India’s Food Regulator, FSSAI, has capped the amount of TFA in Oils and Fats in Edible Refined Oils and Vanaspati, Margarine, Bakery Shortenings, and Cooking mediums like Vegetable and Mixed Fat spread to 2% in 2022. USFDA has banned artificial TFA since 2018 while EU member nations follow their own limits.
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    Fatty Acid Profiling

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    PARAMETERS

    Saturated Fatty Acids:
    • Butyric Acid ( C4:0) • Caproic Acid ( C6:0) • Caprylic Acid ( C8:0) • Capric Acid (C10:0) • Undecanoic Acid (C11:0) • Lauric Acid (C12:0) • Tridecanoic Acid (C13:0) • Myristic Acid (C14:0) • Pentadecanoic Acid (C15:0) • Palmitic Acid (C16:0) • Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0) • Stearic Acid (C18:0) • Arachidic Acid (C20:0) • Henicosanoic Acid (C21:0) • Behanic Acid (C22:0) • Tricosanoic Acid (C23:0) • Lignoceric Acid (C 24:0)

    Mono-Unsaturated Fatty Acids:
    • Myristoleic Acid (C14:1) • Cis-10-Pentadecanoic Acid (C15:1) • Palmitoleic Acid ( C16:1 ) • Cis-10-Heptadecanoic Acid ( C17:1 ) • Elaidic Acid (C18:1, Trans), Oleic Acid (C18:1) • Eicosenoic Acid (C20:1) • Erucic Acid ( C22:1) • Nervonic Acid (C24:1)

    Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids:

    • Linolelaidic Acid ( C18:2, Trans) • Linoleic Acid (C18:2, W6) • Y- Linolenic Acid ( C18:3) • Linolenic Acid (C18:3, W-3) • Cis -11-14- Eicosadienoic Acid (C20:2) • Cis-8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid (C20:3n6) • Cis-11,14,17 – Eicosatrienoic Acid (C20:3n3) • Arachidonic Acid (C20:4n6) • Cis -13,16- Docosadienoic Acid (C22:2) • Eicosapentaenoic Acid (C20:5n3) • Nervonic Acid (C24:1) • Cis- 4,7,10,13,16,19 – Docosahexaenoic Acid (C22:6) Trans Fatty Acid: Elaidic Acid (C18:1) • Linolelaidic Acid ( C18:2)
    Omega – 3

    • Fatty Acid: Linolenic Acid ( C18:3) • Eicosapentaenoic Acid (C20:5n3)

    Omega – 6
    • Fatty Acid: Linolelaidic Acid ( C18:2, Trans) • Linoleic Acid (C18:2) • Y- Linolenic Acid ( C18:3) • Arachidonic Acid (C20:4n6)

    Omega – 9
    • Fatty Acid: Elaidic Acid (C18:1, Trans) • Oleic Acid (C18:1) • Erucic Acid (C22:1)

    METHODS & GUIDELINES

    • AOAC
    • AOCS
    • IS
    • ISO
    • USP
    • FCC
    • FSSAI Lab Man

    INSTRUMENTS

    • GC-FID

    • HPLC-ELSD

    • GC-MS/MS